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This volume contains a collection of papers written for the Workshop on Accounting for East-West Joint Ventures (13-15 June 1989). The introduction to the volume describes in detail what took place at that meeting and considers the follow-up actions that enabled the former USSR to embark on the path to comprehensive reform. Papers 1, 2, 3, 7 and 17 dealt with the divergent international and USSR accounting systems concentrating on the objectives and main concepts of these systems and pointing out obvious conflicts between these two systems. Papers 4, 5 and 6 deal with current international efforts to harmonize national accounting standards. The specific problems of sis joint ventures are contained in papers 8-14. Paper 15 explores solutions to these problems that would draw both partners closer to internationally accepted practices. Papers 16, 18 and 19 discuss what type of training could best help Soviet accountants and students attain a better understanding of international accounting.

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This volume identifies and clarify accounting and valuation problems that arise during the course of privatisation in many countries. It contains eight country case studies which describes the motivations for privatisation, the techniques used to transfer public assets to private hands, and the problems that arise because new accounting systems have been imposed on old ones or the quality of the date is insufficient to produce useful information. Before accounting problems are addressed, it provides a general discussion of the objectives of privatisation, the factors that influence the selection of privatisation methods, privatisation techniques and the steps for readying enterprises for privatisation (Chapter II) and the legal infrastructure necessary for privatisation (Chapter III).

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This study provides an analysis of the issues and options which are crucial to the formulation of national petroleum policies, legislation and contractual arrangements. In particular it is concerned with the questions of how a government of a developing country can secure a rapid and comprehensive evaluation of the country's petroleum potential; exercise effective control over petroleum exploration, development and production operations; and maximize the government's financial returns from petroleum, while limiting government risks to an acceptable level. In chapter II, the report discusses factors that governments should consider in formulating overall objectives and the constraints on their ability to achieve those objectives. Chapters III and IV review the many financial and non-financial issues which must be dealt with, regardless of the form of contractual arrangement adopted. Chapter V provides a comparison of the various arrangements, from the point of view of how each deals with such key issues as allocation of risk, division of fiscal benefits, allocation of petroleum supply and the exercise of control over petroleum operations. Chapter VI contains a discussion of legislative and administrative issues, including the choice of legal framework for petroleum activity and the various methods for awarding contracts to foreign oil companies.

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This study focuses on an important aspect of relationships between transnational corporations and host developing countries, namely, the nature of engineering and technical assistance consultancy contracts. The first part of the study focuses on key provisions in engineering consultancy contracts. It examines the consultant’s duties and responsibilities in general and specific responsibilities in relation to personnel and training. It then looks at the owner’s rights and objectives. The fee structures and financial provisions in these contracts are also examined in detail, as are the payment procedures and currency-related clauses. The second part of the study is dedicated to an examination of key provisions in technical assistance contracts, including general duties of consultants, development and utilisation of host country human resources, consultant’s foreign personnel, fee structures and financial provisions and payment procedures. Part three analyses provisions applicable to both engineering and technical assistance consultancy contracts, including governing law, validity of contract, settlement of disputes and suspension and termination and force majeure

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This study constitutes both a general description of the lease method of personal property acquisition and a legal analysis of the lessee’s rights and obligations under a variety of lease agreements. It was prepared on the basis of a review of 25 lease agreements and a survey of leasing community attitudes and concerns relating to leasing in developing countries. The lease agreements reviewed include both operating and financial leases and dealt with items of property such as aircraft, vessels, oil field equipment, construction equipment, containers, agricultural vehicles, and industrial equipment.

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This study examines an important aspect of the relationship between transnational corporations and host developing countries, namely, joint ventures. It looks first at the nature of the various parties to joint ventures, in particular the various types of national partners and investors. The major goals of joint ventures partners are also discussed. The study then focuses on specific aspects of joint ventures, including the complementarity of contributions by joint venture partners, the allocation of responsibilities, and the question of transfer pricing. Finally, the study analyses key elements of a joint venture agreement, including licensing and technology arrangements, management contracts, financial arrangements , headquarters charges, royalties and other fees, and resolution of disputes

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This volume contains the first part of the results of the Benchmark Corporate Environmental Survey conducted by UNCTC. The Survey measures the state of international corporate environmental management at the time. The findings on this volume relate to corporate responses in the areas of protection of the atmosphere, land resources, conservation of biological diversity and environmentally sound management of biotechnology

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This volume contains the second part of the results of the Benchmark Corporate Environmental Survey conducted by UNCTC. The Survey measures the state of international corporate environmental management at the time. The findings on this volume relate to corporate responses in the areas of protection of protection of fresh-water resources, protection of the oceans, and environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes

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This volume contains the second part of the results of the Benchmark Corporate Environmental Survey conducted by UNCTC. The Survey measures the state of international corporate environmental management at the time. The findings on this volume relate to corporate responses on related legal and institutional issues, namely, the role of the United Nations in environmental matters, international and sectoral guidelines and company-wide environmental policies

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This booklet contains an updated list of bilateral investment treaties concluded up to mid-1991. The listing is preceded by a brief overview of the main features of such treaties.

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This study is dedicated to a comparative study of bilateral treaties for the promotion and protection of foreign investments (BITs). Part One examines pasts and present trends regarding international investment agreements, and, after discussing some older types of agreements, such as friendship comer and navigation treaties, political risk insurance and investment guarantee agreements, it looks closely at the emergence of bilateral investment treaties, their geographical expansion, their significance for the development of international investment law and their influence in foreign direct investment flows. Part Two contains a comparative analysis of the provisions of BITs identifying their similarities and differences. The provisions are grouped under the following headings: preamble, scope of application of the treaty, treatment of investments, dispossession of the investor, settlement of disputes. The annexes contain a list of BITs concluded up to mid-1987, as well as a number of prototype agreements prepared by individual countries or organizations

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This study is a contribution to the analysis of environmental restructuring and the requirements for a sustainable economy. It concentrates on ways in which the activities of transnational corporations, and the current framework of incentives which influences how TNCs decide to undertake those activities, contribute to the global environmental threat confronting the world. Using that analysis as a basis, the study discusses the impact of environmental restructuring on TNCs and identifies concrete steps that TNCs can adopt in order to help reduce their contribution to that threat. Those policies and principles complement actions that need to be taken by other institutions, such as national governments, non-governmental organizations, the United Nations System and other interested parties.

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This study is the product of a long-term research project. It provides in a summary form, a tour d’ horizon of the main issues involved in debt equity conversion programmes. More specifically, it assess the patterns, structures and mechanisms used so far in the development of debt equity conversion programmes; sets out the main challenges and issues that face indebted countries in the areas of debt conversion; identifies the chief advantages and disadvantages of debt equity conversion programmes from the point of view of the host country; and provides concrete guidelines for policy-makers who are contemplating debt equity conversion programmes.

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This publication reports on the findings of the survey of TNC activities in specific pollution-intensive industries, which was undertaken as part of the research studies on the environmental aspects of transnational corporations activities in the ESCAP region. The survey was conducted in selected Asian and Pacific countries: China Fiji, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. The volume also contains a regional overview prepared by the ESCAP/UNCTC Joint Unit on TNCs

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In the context of the establishment of a comprehensive information system in the United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations, this volume contains the replies of governments to a questionnaire sent by the Secretary- General of the United Nations requesting their contribution of relevant information on transnational corporations operations and activities. The information requested relates to the following subjects: national legislation and regulations relating to transnational corporations: current research on transnational corporations: contracts and agreements between national entities and transnational corporations; information on 13 priority areas where, according to the Commission, information gaps were most pressing. The report contains replies sent by 23 governments (13 developed market economy countries, 9 developing countries, and 1 eastern European countries).

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This study focuses on an important aspect of relationships between transnational corporations and host developing countries, namely, the nature of contractual arrangements for the establishment of industrial plans and the implementation of industrial projects, known as turnkey contracts. Part two contains an analysis of specific contractual provisions in existing turnkey contracts dealing with the design and construction of a variety of processing, manufacturing and power-generating facilities. This part was prepared on the basis of 15 turnkey arrangements. A tentative draft single-purpose turnkey contract is set forth in annex I

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This paper looks in some detail into the financial and fiscal aspects of petroleum exploitation. It first distinguishes between different types of financial flows related to petroleum exploitation and considers the objectives of host country governments and of investment companies in this respect. Next the paper looks at types of fiscal devices and their effects, including royalties and production taxes, income tax, bids and bonuses, production sharing contracts, and various combinations thereof. The case of participation by a national oil company is also considered.

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This monograph considers foreign direct investment (FDI) and technology transfer policies, and the promotional and regulatory system to operationalize these policies, which might be appropriate for developing countries, given the conditions of countries and their development goals and overall policies. The volume is organized around four factors that determine the performance of the policy system of a host country towards operations by TNCs: 1 the world economic development, including international economic and political conditions and the policies, incentives systems and conditions in other countries; the policies and strategies of host developing countries towards foreign direct investment, cooperative arrangements, technology transfer, and the impact of TNC operations on the country relative to its development goals; the environment in the host country, including its general policies and how they relate to foreign investment policies, its natural resources, the size, growth rate and protection of the domestic market, the wage rates, discipline and human capital of its labour force; the relative bargaining power between TNCs and host developing countries based on these three factors and how each uses its strategies and organizations to exert its bargaining power.

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This study addresses the issue of whether specific government policies aimed at inward foreign direct investment (FDI) can have an influence on the level of investment flows. For that purpose, it categorizes government FDI policies into discrete types. It then analyses data form 1977 to 1987 on FDI policy announcements made by 46 countries. The volume also assesses whether government policy announcements have influenced the pattern of FDI flows. For a few countries there is a clear connection between relaxation of investment regulations and a subsequent increase in investment flows. However, in general, the statistical analyses suggests that investors' responses appear to be more strongly influenced by the size and growth of the host economy

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This publication covers the substantive issues of accounting and reporting considered by the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting at its fifth session. It reproduces the studies prepared for this purpose by the UNCTC. These are preceded by the conclusions reached by the group. Chapter I reviews important current developments in the field of accounting and reporting by transnational corporations. Chapter II deals with accounting and reporting for business combinations. Chapter III focuses on the issues of revenue recognition and accounting for non-operating gains and losses. Chapter IV examines the subject of valuation and inventories. Chapter V deals with numerical data on the largest transnational corporations.

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This publication covers the substantive issues of accounting and reporting considered by the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting at its eighth session. It reproduces the studies prepared for this purpose by the UNCTC. These are preceded by the conclusions reached by the group. Chapter I reviews important current developments at the global level in the field of accounting and reporting by transnational corporations. Chapter II reviews developments at the national level. Chapter III contains the results of the international survey of financial statements published by transnational corporations and other enterprises. Chapter IV deals with the issue of accounting for and by joint ventures. Chapter V addresses the issue of accounting for pension commitments. Chapter VI examines accounting for intangible assets. Chapter VII deals with the question of information disclosure relating to environmental measures. Chapter VIII considers ways and means of improving education, research and practical training in the field of accounting and reporting in member states, focusing on the results of the survey on Africa. Chapter IX examines further steps to be taken in relation to the development of the comprehensive information system. Chapter X considers appropriate measures to give effect to the work of the group. Te report of the Working Group on its eighth session is reproduced in annex I.

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This publication identifies emerging trends in international regulation for the protection of the environment, which are likely to have implications for transnational corporations, and surveys, in overview, recent developments in international law and policy instruments, at the global and regional levels, for the protection of the environment. It also identifies a number of global and regional developments which have actual or potential impact on transnational corporations, by reference to a number of different types of policy instruments which are utilized or proposed. The annexes to the report identify illustrative case studies of the why in which certain recent developments in international environmental law have emerged in a context which may not provide sufficient legal certainty.

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This study highlights the main issues involved in hotel management contracts which may be useful to officials of developing countries responsible for negotiating with international hotel chains. The focus of the study covers the selection and scope of services of international hotel chains and alternatives to management agreements, as well as a detailed review of major negotiating issues in a hotel management contract.

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This publication contains three papers prepared by UNCTC in order to assist the Group of Experts on Accounting and Reporting to fulfil its mandate. The first paper reviews briefly the existing state of corporate reporting and identifies significant gaps and information needs, especially from the point of view of the international community as a whole. In its concluding section it presents for the Group's consideration a possible minimum list of items of financial and non-financial information which transnational corporations could disclose in their reporting and suggests possible working arrangements for the Group. The second paper reviews current accounting and reporting practices of corporations, on the basis chiefly of detailed studies of 46 countries. It also describes the ongoing efforts to achieve standardization of general purpose financial statements at the national, regional and international levels. In an concluding section, it reviews a number of issues and problems concerning the standardization of accounting. Detailed background information on current reporting practices and standardization efforts is presented in nine annexes to the paper. The third paper examines current reporting practices of transnational corporations or their subsidiaries in developing countries in selected areas.

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This publication contains a selection of documents prepared for a number of workshops conducted by UNCTC under its technical co-operation programme, on issues involved in negotiating loan agreements with transnational banks. It first examines some issues in the negotiation of commercial foreign exchange loans in developing countries. Next, it looks at issues in negotiations with transnational banks from a sovereign borrower's perspective. The third chapter examines in detail legal and other issues arising in the negotiation of transnational bank loan agreements entered into by developing countries. The final chapter considers the documentation of eurocurrency credit transactions

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This volume provides a basis for understanding the Soviet system of accounting. It describes the Soviet accounting rules as currently applied to joint ventures, reviews problems encountered with these rules and offers suggestions for change. It further provides a conceptual framework for accounting and reporting discussing in particular the objectives of financial statements, the characteristics of useful information, the assumptions underlying the financial statements, the elements of financial statements, the recognition of the elements of financial statements and the measurement of the elements of financial statements

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This study discusses some of the concepts in international investment agreements that are most relevant to the elaboration of an international framework on services. Principal reliance is placed on a number of recent international instruments. The study inquires first into the scope of relevant international standards and the manner in which central concepts and important actors in each concept are defined. The questions of entry, presence and establishment of foreign controlled firms in a country are then considered. The principal legal standards for the treatment of persons, products and services of foreign origin are also examined, as are the notion of development, and particular issues, some of which constitute in a very broad sense, qualifications and exceptions to the application of legal standards

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This publication contains an analysis of licensing contracts based on consultations with public and private sector organizations and relating to licensing situations in several countries. The work of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the International Chamber of Commerce concerning licensing is also examined. In addition, the report also reviews and analyses 33 licence agreements dealing with a variety of subjects, such as software, electrical equipment, pharmaceutical products, clothing and petroleum equipment. The analysis is resented under the following main headings: the international legal framework: recent issues in developing countries; host government supervision of technology transfer: a major international licensing issue; allocation of discretion to licenses, distributors and franchises; an analysis of clauses tending to affect the licensee’s self-supervision or discretion; and an analysis of general clauses in licensing agreements.

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This publication is an annotated bibliography of directories of companies world-wide. It covers published directories that are issued on a continuing periodical basis. The present edition includes more than 890 directories. It indexes them under 90 headings, as well as by geographical coverage and specific industry

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This study examines the nature and key features of a management contract relationship between a developing country owner and a transnational corporation manager. It looks first at the scope of the functions it may involve, as well as global trends in management contract relationships. It then examines in detail specific key provisions of management contracts relating to pre-operational responsibilities, owner’s control, owner’s obligations to manager, furnishing of human resources by manager, transfer of technology, hiring and training of local staff, local procurement, project expenses, owner’s control of performance and allocation of liability, as well a resolution of disputes.

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This volume examines in detail the national policy and regulatory regimes on foreign direct investment of selected developing countries, eastern European countries and developed market economy countries. The policy topics dealt with include monitoring and screening investors; ownership, control and divestment; foreign exchange control regulations; technology transfer and restrictive business practices; fiscal incentives and taxation; administration and supervision. This volume examines in detail the national policy and regulatory regimes on foreign direct investment of selected developing countries, eastern European countries and developed market economy countries. The policy topics dealt with include monitoring and screening investors; ownership, control and divestment; foreign exchange control regulations; technology transfer and restrictive business practices; fiscal incentives and taxation; administration and supervision.

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This technical paper examines in detail de national policy and regulatory regimes on FDI of twenty countries in Africa (Ghana, United Republic of Tanzania, Zaire and Zambia), Asia (Indonesia, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Singapore), Central America (Costa Rica, Guyana, Panama and Trinidad and Tobago), Middle East and North Africa (Algeria, Iraq, Tunisia, Turkey) and in other regions (Australia, Canada, France, Romania). The policy topics dealt with in the present volume are: (a) main investment legislation; (b) monitoring and screening investors; (c) ownership, control and divestment; (d) foreign exchange control regulations; (e) technology transfer and restrictive business practices; (f) fiscal incentives and taxation; (g) export processing zones; (h) disclosure requirements under corporate laws; (i) investment guarantees; (j) governing law and dispute settlement.

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This volume examines in detail de national policy and regulatory regimes on foreign direct investment of selected countries. Part one covers the following 10 countries: Botswana and Liberia for Africa; Thailand for Asia; Italy and Portugal for Europe; Kuwait and Libyan Arab Jamahiriya for the Middle East; and Bolivia, Peru and Venezuela for Latin America. Part two contains partial updates on 18 countries covered in the second volume, based on the latest available information. The policy topics dealt with in the present volume are: (a) main investment legislation; (b) monitoring and screening investors; (c) ownership, control and divestment; (d) foreign exchange control regulations; (e) technology transfer and restrictive business practices; (f) fiscal incentives and taxation; (g) export processing zones; (h) disclosure requirements under corporate laws; (i) investment guarantees; (j) governing law and dispute settlement

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This publication is the fifth volume in a series of publications on national legislation and regulations relating to transnational corporations. The topics dealt with in this volume are the same as the ones covered in the preceding publications, which are the following: main investment legislation; monitoring and screening investors; ownership, control and divestment; foreign exchange control regulations; technology transfer and restrictive business practices; fiscal incentives and taxation; export processing zones; disclosure requirements under corporate laws; investment guarantees; governing law and dispute settlement. Part one of this volume covers 18 countries, namely, Cameroon, Madagascar, Mauritius, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Bangladesh, China, Sri Lanka, Bahamas, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Austria, Cyprus, Greece, Ireland, Czechoslovakia and

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This publication is the sixth volume in a series of publications on national legislation and regulations relating to transnational corporations. The topics dealt with in this volume are the same as the ones covered in the preceding publications, which are the following: main investment legislation; monitoring and screening investors; ownership, control and divestment; foreign exchange control regulations; technology transfer and restrictive business practices; fiscal incentives and taxation; export processing zones; disclosure requirements under corporate laws; investment guarantees; governing law and dispute settlement. This volume covers 20 countries, namely, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Congo, Djibouti, Gabon, Guinea, Zimbabwe, Japan, New Zealand, Denmark, Lichtenstein, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Barbados, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Dominican Republic, Netherlands Antilles, Tunisia and Turkey

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This publication is the seventh volume in a series of publications on national legislation and regulations relating to transnational corporations. The topics dealt with in this volume are the same as the ones covered in the preceding publications, which are the following: main investment legislation; monitoring and screening investors; ownership, control and divestment; foreign exchange control regulations; technology transfer and restrictive business practices; fiscal incentives and taxation; export processing zones; disclosure requirements under corporate laws; investment guarantees; governing law and dispute settlement. This volume covers 18 countries, namely, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda, Fiji, Nepal, Morocco, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Haiti, Uruguay. Belgium, Canada, Norway, Romania, United States of America and Yugoslavia

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This study examines general problems in natural gas development, looking at the specific characteristics of natural gas and the uncertainties in its development. After considering the deficiencies in existing petroleum arrangements to deal with gas development issues, it suggests provisions in these arrangements related to gas pricing, gas marketing and fiscal terms for natural gas. Finally, it discusses recent developments in gas clauses in petroleum arrangements in four developing countries. The annex contains sample clauses pertaining to natural gas for petroleum arrangements.

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transnational corporations, TNCs, foreign direct investment, FDI, international business, international investment relations, UNCTC, investment and development, accounting standards, accounting and privatisation, valuation and privatisation

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This publication contains a topical list of the publications prepared by the UNCTC emanating from its work programme. The lists includes reports on the sessions of the Commission on Transnational Corporations, the technical papers based on UNCTC research, technical cooperation and information activities, the titles in its UNCTC Current Studies and UNCTC Advisory Studies series, and the individual issues of its periodical Transnational Corporations journal as well as the quarterly issues of its newsletter, Transnationals.

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This study reviews overall trends in foreign direct investment flows and their distribution patterns between developed market economies and developing countries. It then considers in more detail the situation for developed market economies and for developing countries, including the sectoral distribution of such flows.

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This publication set out curricula for educating and training accountants, regulators and others, especially in joint ventures in centrally planned economies. It contains three separate programmes: an academic programme, an intensive practical training programme, and a programme for training the trainers. The programmes involve a mixture of international and centrally planned economy accounting approaches in order to prepare accountants in centrally planned economies for coping with the accounting and auditing issues facing joint-venture activities. The contents include comparative international accounting issues, financial accounting, disclosure and reporting, managerial cost/accounting (planning and control), corporate finance and foreign transactions, auditing, accounting for and by joint ventures in centrally-planned economies, and accounting information systems and computer auditing

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This publication was prepared in response to a request of the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting as part of its mandate to monitor developments as regards international standards of accounting and reporting. The specific studies presented in this publication focus on regional and interregional efforts aimed at harmonizing corporate accounting and reporting. Thus, part one describes the involvement of the United Nations in the pursuit of this objective, reviews briefly the events leading to the establishment of the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Working Group, discusses the Group's work in relation to other efforts mandated by the Commission on Transnational Corporations, notably the comprehensive information system and the code of conduct, and summarizes certain issues raised concerning international standards of accounting and reporting. Part two surveys the ongoing efforts made by various regional and interregional organizations to promote harmonization in the area of corporate accounting and reporting. Part three presents a comparative study of the lists of minimum items for general purpose of reporting, with some international, regional and national disclosure requirements. The results of this comparison is tabulated in annex I.

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This volume is part of a series of case studies on the developmental impact of transborder data flows and the role of transnational corporations in it. It assesses empirically the growth of the national telematics market of Brazil, its transborder-data-flow linkages, the impact of these flows on the country and the role of transnational corporations in these flows. Finally, the study analyses the policies adopted by Brazil on transaborder data flows and on the underlying fields of telecommunications, informatics and telematics, and assesses their impact and future prospects.

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This study describes the on-line data-base market with a view to enable developing countries to assess the usefulness of this resource. First, it describes the international data-base industry, including its nature and its costs and pricing strategies. Second, it delineates the dimensions of the international on-line data-base market and the role of transnational corporations in it. Here, the origins of this market are traced, the dimensions of the market are documented and the role of transnational corporations is pointed out, including examples of firms active in the on-line market. Thirdly, the potential relevance of on-line data-bases for developing countries is discussed on the basis of the preliminary results of a survey on the likelihood of finding relevant information on 14 illustrative search topics in on-line data-bases. Finally, the study identifies a number of ways in which developing countries might be able to strengthen their information resources in the area under discussion. The role of international organizations in this respect is noted.

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This publication contains the register of reports prepared by consultants to UNCTC. The register lists approximately 1.100 reports in the files of the Documentation Unit of UNCTC dating from 1976 to early 1991. It is organized in four separately lists: main list by broad subject title category, geographic index, author index and project number index. The subject title category in turn is subdivided in the following headings: foreign direct investment and other external financial flows, enterprises, transnational corporations in specific economic sectors, transnational corporations in specific countries and regions, economic issues, political, social and environmental issues, international legal and policy framework national legal and policy framework, contracts and agreements between transnational corporations and host country organizations, technical assistance. reference sources.

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This study focuses on the formation of linkages between transnational corporations' affiliates and domestic corporations in the manufacturing sector, and examines ways in which such linkages can initiate and stimulate production activities of domestic corporations in developing countries. Using the automobile industry as an example of linkages in the manufacturing sector, the study is based on existing literature and on case studies conducted in India, Peru and Morocco. It first discusses the ways in which transnational corporations can contribute to increased industrial capability in developing countries by establishing linkages to domestic corporations, and their propensity to do so. The next chapters present the background, findings and conclusions of the three case studies. The final chapter suggest some policy measures that developing countries might consider in order to gain maximum benefits form linkages to transnational corporations

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This report reviews the regulations adopted in developed countries in relation to the disclosure of environmental and health risks and provides concrete proposals for the application of these regulations in developing countries. It includes four model laws regarding risk disclosure which could be adopted by developing countries with respect to, construction plans of important industrial installations; the exploitation of industrial installations with public health risks; the sell or export of dangerous products; and the management of working places presenting security and health risks

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This study discusses first recent trends in FDI flows. It then examines the implications of the emergence of the European Common market for developing countries, considers the role of transnational corporations in the least developed countries and discusses the debt problem of developing countries in so far as it concerns transnational banks.

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This technical paper examines the structure of transnational advertising, describing the strategies of the major transnational advertising agencies and their relations with the mass media, and deals briefly with some possible implications that the activities of these agencies may have for host countries, as well as with some regulatory measures that governments have adopted. The first chapter describes the background, structure and geographical distribution of the transnational advertising industry. The second chapter deals with the expansion, strategies and relationships of the industry to its clients, including its future prospects. The issue of dependence of the mass media sector on advertising revenues and some of its implications is taken up in the third chapter. The fourth chapter gives an overview of overall advertising effects and deals more specifically with the implications for developing countries. The fifth chapter describes the general trends on government regulation in advertising and the increasing self-regulatory activity by industry, giving examples in both cases.

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This study focuses the nature of the food-processing investments of transnational corporations in developing countries, the impacts of these activities on the development potential of the host countries, and the policies developed by host countries to improve the performance of transitional corporations and others in the related industries. The first chapter identifies the leading members of the international food and beverage processing industry and their overall strategies and organizational structures. A more detailed examination of the evolution of transnational corporations' investments in specific developing country food processing industries is presented in the second chapter. In the third chapter, transnational corporations food industry operations are examined in terms of host country interests and development objectives. In this context such development-related goals as food self-reliance, industrialization and domestic control of resources are given particular emphasis. The concluding chapter reviews the policy measures evolved by developing host countries seeking to channel and control the food industry activities of transnational corporations

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This study examines trends in foreign direct investment in international tourism, focusing on the transnational hotel industry, the transnational airline industry and the transnational tour-operators industry. It looks at the impact of transitional hotel chains and management companies operating in developing countries, the impact of foreign airlines operations on developing countries, and the operations and impact of foreign tour operations. A final chapter discusses some policy issues.

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This volume is a compendium of instruments and statements containing the economic policies adopted by governments and by local authorities up to October 1996 in connection with the system of apartheid and Namibia. It is the fourth of a four volume set which constitutes the record of the United nations public hearings on the activities of transnational corporations in South Africa and Namibia. The volume is introduced by two articles, on the status of apartheid under international law and on the case of Namibia, respectively. Part One includes resolutions and declarations adopted by the United Nations and by groups of states. Part Two contains measures adopted by individual national governments. In Part III several instruments containing measures adopted by state and city authorities have been included.

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This report updates the lists of transantional corporations operating in South Africa issued in 1985, 1988 and 1989. Transnational corporations that have disposed of their equity interests in South Africa appear in table 1. Table 2 presents business that have been identified as holding a direct or indirect equity ownership of more than 10 per cent in one or more subsidiaries /affiliates in South Africa

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This study examines first the market characteristics of the world agricultural industry. It then considers the extent of participation of transnational corporations in it and looks at the operational strategies of the major manufacturers, including the role of exports and of transfer of technology in their strategies. Finally, the study analyses host country policies in this area, including the experiences of countries in Latin America, Near- and Far-East and Africa. Based on these experiences, some policy implications are drawn both for developing countries and transnational corporations.

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This study provides and overall analysis of the structure and market characteristics of the bauxite/aluminium industry and the potential role of transnational corporations in it, with the intention of enhancing the ability of host countries to design appropriate strategies and polices. This study begins with a general overview of the production and market characteristics of the bauxite/ aluminium industry. It then describes the involvement of transnational corporations in that industry and discusses the strategies and operations of these corporations. It concludes with a review of the policy trends in developing countries outlining the future possible roles of transnational corporations in the industry

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This study deals with the role of transnational corporations in the cooper industry. It first looks at the production characteristics of the international copper industry, including the extent of copper reserves and their geographical distribution, mining capacity, exploration, capital costs, technology and consumption. It considers the market structure of the international copper industry, including its level of concentration and vertical integration at the smelting and refining stages, as well as current barriers to entry. The study then focuses on the changing corporate strategies of TNCs in this industry. The policy analysis includes a review of the evolution of policies of host developing countries and the experiences of country copper producers in this regard. This is complemented by a review of recent trends in copper development agreements. The study's conclusion considers some issues arising in the negotiating process, including tax strategies, transfer pricing and inter-affiliate transactions, guarantees and assurances for lenders, pricing and ownership and control.

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This study discusses the role of transnational corporations in the fertilizer industry focusing on chemical fertilizers belonging to three principal categories of plant nutrients, namely, nitrogen, phosphate and potash. After an overview of the features and characteristics of the world fertilizer industry, the study turns to the activities of transnational corporations in this industry, looking at their direct fertilizer production as well as their supply of technology, specialized equipment and engineering services. The next section discusses industry associations and marketing of fertilizers. A final chapter looks at policy issues and government support for the fertilizer industry in developing countries This study discusses the role of transnational corporations in the fertilizer industry focusing on chemical fertilizers belonging to three principal categories of plant nutrients, namely, nitrogen, phosphate and potash. After an overview of the features and characteristics of the world fertilizer industry, the study turns to the activities of transnational corporations in this industry, looking at their direct fertilizer production as well as their supply of technology, specialized equipment and engineering services. The next section discusses industry associations and marketing of fertilizers. A final chapter looks at policy issues and government support for the fertilizer industry in developing countries.

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This publication discusses the role of transnational corporations in the international power equipment industry. The products under review include the major equipment utilized by power utilities for the generation, transmission and bulk distribution of electricity; fossil and nuclear-fueled turbine generators; power transformers; circuit breakers and power boilers. Chapter I describes the general characteristics of the international power-equipment industry. Statistical data is used to show the distribution of world production among the major producing countries. The magnitude and trends in export of power equipment are presented according to exports and markets in the various equipment categories. The role of government in the major producing countries is discussed. Technological development of the industry is related to the structure of the domestic and international market. In chapter II activities of the major power-equipment manufacturers are discussed. Chapter III analyses the strategies of transnational corporations which have affected the international market for power equipment. Chapter IV gives a general overview of the power-equipment manufacturing industry in developing countries and the role of transnational corporations in its development. Based on various country experiences, some policy options are suggested.

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This publication contains the third quinquenial survey carried out by the UNCTC on the operations and strategies of transnational corporations, their role in economic development, their main areas of impact, as well as key trends in government policies on foreign direct investment at the national and international levels. The Survey begins with an overview of the economic environment and the growth and diversification of transnational corporations. It then discusses trends in foreign direct investment flows, looking at various indicators of the evolution of transnational corporations, including non-equity forms of association. Next, the national policies of host and home governments are examined in detail, including notably host developing country policies on the natural resource sector. The Survey dedicates a special chapter to the development of international norms on foreign direct investment in which the draft code of conduct is discussed in detail. The next chapter, dedicated to transnational corporations and development, focuses on the impact of these firms on the process of industrialization, international trade and technology transfer. The operations and strategies of TNCs in selected sectors, i.e. energy, primary export commodities and the food industry are also analysed, including their environmental and socio-cultural impact of their operations. The last chapter provides an in-depth analyses of contractual arrangements

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This publication contains the fourth in a series of quinquennial surveys that began in 1973. It contains a comprehensive analysis of the economic, social and legal impact of TNCs. It examines the role of these corporations as central actors in the world economy and, in particular, their role in development. Divided into five parts, particular attention is given to the following issues: emerging trends in transnationalization; analysis of strategic responses of TNCs to the changing economic environment; contribution of TNCs to economic development; the impacts of TNCs on employment, socio-cultural practices and environment; a review of national policies and international arrangements relating to TNCs and the way in which recent changes have affected the activities of TNCs; trends in international banking and financial markets; and the role of TNCs in services. A compendium of data on foreign direct investment and the activities of TNCs is presented in a statistical annex.

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The executive summary of Transnational Corporations in World Development: Trends and Prospects presents a synopsis of the main findings of that publication. Particular attention is given to the following issues: Emerging trends in transnationalization; Technological and organizational changes affecting the strategies of TNCs; TNCs and international trade; TNCs and economic development; The impact of TNCs on employment, socio-cultural practices and environment; National policies towards TNCs; International arrangements relating to TNCs; Trends in international banking and financial markets: and The role of TNCs in services.

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This publication contains selected citations to material on the economic, political and social impact of transnational corporations in South Africa, as well as other items relevant to the general context of the public hearings held in Geneva in 1989. Section A lists citations to the documents and publications of the UNCTC and other United Nations bodies. Section B contains bibliographic references to material of governmental bodies, academic and research institutions, other non-governmental organizations and private individuals.

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This technical paper reports on recent trends in, and prospects for, foreign direct investment, discussing the major factors affecting the direction of investment flows. The discussion of overall trends is followed by a detailed examination of trends and issues in developed market economies, developing countries and centrally planned economies, including the changing attitudes towards joint ventures in China and Eastern Europe. The second part of the volume concentrates on the changing sectoral composition of FDI in developing countries, confirming a relative decline in foreign direct investment in the primary sector which was accompanied by a marked increase not only in manufacturing, but also in the services sector. Some basic policy issues are considered. The main policy considerations relate to what role should FDI have in reactivating economic growth in developing countries and what policies need to be adopted at the international and national levels to encourage large volumes of FDI and to ensure that they further national objectives.

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This publication contains summaries of oral and written statements of personalities from government, business, trade unions, special and public interest groups and universities, that were invited to present their views at the hearings held by the Group of Eminent Persons on the role of multinational corporations, their impact on the process of development and their implications for international relations. Based on these hearings, the group of eminent persons submitted their recommendations for appropriate international action in relation to transnational corporations. These recommendations led to the creation of the Commission on Transnational Corporations, an intergovernmental subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council, and of the Centre of Transnational Corporations, an autonomous body of the United Nations Secretariat, to serve as a focal point for all matters related to transnational corporations and to act as secretariat to the Commission.

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This bibliography gives an overview of the work of the UNCTC since its inception. It provides not only complete bibliographic references to UNCTC publications, but also includes a brief explanation of the objectives and main areas of work of the Centre. Entries are listed under subject headings and are followed by annotations and reviews, where appropriate.

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This volume brings together the available evidence on the relationship between intellectual property rights and foreign direct investment, surveys recent legislative reform and offers some analytical guidelines that may be of potential value to interested policy-makers, transnational corporations and researchers in the field. More specifically, section I surveys the literature on the determinants of foreign direct investment at the country and industry levels. Section II looks at recent legislative changes introduced at both the national and international levels that point to greater global convergence on the protection of intellectual property rights and assesses the potential impact on foreign direct investment. Section III considers the analytical rationale for more uniform patterns of intellectual property rights protection and traces the likely impact of foreign direct investment by directly locating the potential of intellectual property rights at the industry level.

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This volume is part of a syllabi for graduate students pursuing studies in the field of international investment and transnational corporations. The volume presents the course curriculum for students of international economics and transnational corporations. Part I describes the nature and scope of the TNC activity. Part II examines the determinants of TNC activity. Part III looks inside the TNC and examines some organizational and strategic issues. Part IV discusses the impact of TNCs. Part V focuses on national and international policies relating to TNCs. Part VI looks into the future of TNCs

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This volume is part of a syllabi for graduate students pursuing studies in the field of international investment and transnational corporations. The volume present the course curriculum for graduate students of business administration and commerce. The syllabus is divided into eighteen seminars dealing with the theory of international business and TNCs – international trade theory, international finance theory, the theory of the TNC, and the theory of TNC-host country relations. Part II includes 11 case studies. The volume is completed with a bibliography.

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This volume is part of a syllabi for graduate students pursuing studies in the field of international investment and transnational corporations. The volume presents the curriculum for law courses on transnational corporations. Part I describes the nature and impact of TNCs. Part II deals with the changing legal environment for TNC activity in developing countries. Part III looks at concepts of accounting, financial and economic and analysis. Part IV focuses on domestic and international financing arrangements and exchange control policies. Part V looks at the national regulatory framework. Part VI deals with issues of taxation and transfer pricing. Part VII examines forms of agreements. Part VIII discusses common clauses in agreements. Part IX deals with disputes resolution. Part X studies selected TNC agreements. Part XI is dedicated to negotiating agreements with TNCs. Part XII considers how to change the investment relationship. Part XIII deals with professional responsibility

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The UNCTC, as part of its training services, organized workshops and roundtables for government officials of developing countries in order to enhance their capabilities for formulating policies, laws and regulations related to transnational corporations and for negotiating or otherwise dealing with transnational corporations. Many of the reports and papers prepared for these events are not issued as United Nations documents. This bibliography lists a selection of these reports and papers, and provides an abstract of their contents. The citations are arranged by alphabetical order by title and report. Five indexes, each alphabetically arranged, provide access to the bibliography: an index by specific subject; a geographic index; an index of institutions , and index of authors; and an index of meetings related to the reports.

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The UNCTC, as part of its training services, organized workshops and roundtables for government officials of developing countries in order to enhance their capabilities for formulating policies, laws and regulations related to transnational corporations and for negotiating or otherwise dealing with transnational corporations. Many of the reports and papers prepared for these events are not issued as United Nations documents. This bibliography lists a selection of these reports and papers, and provides an abstract of their contents. The citations are arranged by alphabetical order by title and report. Five indexes, each alphabetically arranged, provide access to the bibliography: an index by specific subject; a geographic index; an index of institutions , and index of authors; and an index of meetings related to the reports.

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This publication contains a bibliography of selected reports and papers prepared as part of the training services of UNCTC. The bibliography consists of a main bibliographic index and five additional indexes. The main bibliographic index groups papers according to a broad classification system for research and information on transnational corporations and foreign direct investment.

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UNCTC
World Investment Reports(WIR) 1991-2004
List of UN publications(bibliography) on TNCs and FDI
1993-2004 Documents at DITE, UNCTAD website
TNC Journals from 1991 onwards
Article on Forty Years of UNCTAD Research on FDI by Torbjorn Fredriksson
UNCTC